Business File Server

Windows Server AntiVirus & Network Security | AVG Business
I would recommend getting a new file storage system that does not consume a lot of power:

CPU: Intel Core i3-6100 3.7GHz Dual-Core Processor ($111.99 @ SuperBiiz)
Motherboard: Gigabyte GA-H110M-A Micro ATX LGA1151 Motherboard ($53.99 @ SuperBiiz)
Memory: Crucial 4GB (1 x 4GB) DDR4-2133 Memory ($16.99 @ Amazon)
Storage: Seagate Barracuda 2TB 3.5" 7200RPM Internal Hard Drive ($65.89 @ OutletPC)
Case: NZXT Source 210 (Black) ATX Mid Tower Case ($29.99 @ Newegg)
Power Supply: Silverstone 300W 80+ Bronze Certified SFX Power Supply ($48.99 @ SuperBiiz)
Total: $327.84
Prices include shipping, taxes, and discounts when available

There is enough storage for whatever you need, and this can be used to install Windows on, then using Windows set up file sharing across the network. You could install FileZilla server for your FTP needs.

To answer your questions:

Files that are accessed from the NAS are temporarily stored on the client computer that is working on it, once the client hits save, its gets saved to the server where the file was originally found.

Where you say "Or that other users accessing the drives will slow the programs down." i think of it in 2 different ways. The first is, when the client opens up a document, it will slow down the program that the client is editing it with. The answer to that is no. The second is, when the client opens up a document, it will slow the program that is running on the server, the answer to that is also no.

If you set up permissions by denying members the ability to delete from a network share, then there will be no way for a user to delete it, unless they are using the actual server where the file is stored on (which is highly unlikely unless you will be using the NAS as a desktop computer).

Rather get a Windows tower, like in the build above, as it gives more headroom for upgrades. You could even use this computer as a NAS, a website hosting box (upgrade CPU and RAM: Core i5 6500 and 16GB will be great for that), and also as a domain controller for the PCs on the network (upgrade CPU and RAM: Core Xeon for best efficiency and 32GB ECC RAM).

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