Windows Server Machine

How to promote Windows Server 2008 machine to domain controller

Linux operating systems running on generation 2 virtual machines can now boot with the Secure Boot option enabled. Ubuntu 14.04 and later, SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12 and later, Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.0 and later, and CentOS 7.0 and later are enabled for Secure Boot on hosts that run Windows Server 2016. Before you boot the virtual machine for the first time, you must configure the virtual machine to use the Microsoft UEFI Certificate Authority. You can do this from Hyper-V Manager, Virtual Machine Manager, or an elevated Windows Powershell session. For Windows PowerShell, run this command:

Set-VMFirmware vmname -SecureBootTemplate MicrosoftUEFICertificateAuthority

For more information about Linux virtual machines on Hyper-V, see Linux and FreeBSD Virtual Machines on Hyper-V. For more information about the cmdlet, see Set-VMFirmware.

More memory and processors for generation 2 virtual machines and Hyper-V hosts (updated)

Starting with version 8, generation 2 virtual machines can use significantly more memory and virtual processors. Hosts also can be configured with significantly more memory and virtual processors than were previously supported. These changes support new scenarios such as running e-commerce large in-memory databases for online transaction processing (OLTP) and data warehousing (DW). The Windows Server blog recently published the performance results of a virtual machine with 5.5 terabytes of memory and 128 virtual processors running 4 TB in-memory database. Performance was greater than 95% of the performance of a physical server. For details, see Windows Server 2016 Hyper-V large-scale VM performance for in-memory transaction processing. For details about virtual machine versions, see Upgrade virtual machine version in Hyper-V on Windows 10 or Windows Server 2016. For the full list of supported maximum configurations, see Plan for Hyper-V scalability in Windows Server 2016.

Nested virtualization (new)

This feature lets you use a virtual machine as a Hyper-V host and create virtual machines within that virtualized host. This can be especially useful for development and test environments. To use nested virtualization, you'll need:

  • To run at least Windows Server 2016 or Windows 10 on both the physical Hyper-V host and the virtualized host.
  • A processor with Intel VT-x (nested virtualization is available only for Intel processors at this time).

Networking features (new)

New networking features include:

  • Remote direct memory access (RDMA) and switch embedded teaming (SET). You can set up RDMA on network adapters bound to a Hyper-V virtual switch, regardless of whether SET is also used. SET provides a virtual switch with some of same capabilities as NIC teaming. For details, see Remote Direct Memory Access (RDMA) and Switch Embedded Teaming (SET).
  • Virtual machine multi queues (VMMQ). Improves on VMQ throughput by allocating multiple hardware queues per virtual machine. The default queue becomes a set of queues for a virtual machine, and traffic is spread between the queues.
  • Quality of service (QoS) for software-defined networks. Manages the default class of traffic through the virtual switch within the default class bandwidth.

Production checkpoints (new)

Production checkpoints are "point-in-time" images of a virtual machine. These give you a way to apply a checkpoint that complies with support policies when a virtual machine runs a production workload. Production checkpoints are based on backup technology inside the guest instead of a saved state. For Windows virtual machines, the Volume Snapshot Service (VSS) is used. For Linux virtual machines, the file system buffers are flushed to create a checkpoint that's consistent with the file system. If you'd rather use checkpoints based on saved states, choose standard checkpoints instead. For details, see Choose between standard or production checkpoints.


New virtual machines use production checkpoints as the default.

Rolling Hyper-V Cluster upgrade (new)

You can now add a node running Windows Server 2016 to a Hyper-V Cluster with nodes running Windows Server 2012 R2. This allows you to upgrade the cluster without downtime. The cluster runs at a Windows Server 2012 R2 feature level until you upgrade all nodes in the cluster and update the cluster functional level with the Windows PowerShell cmdlet, Update-ClusterFunctionalLevel.

After you update the cluster functional level, you can't return it to Windows Server 2012 R2.

For a Hyper-V cluster with a functional level of Windows Server 2012 R2 with nodes running Windows Server 2012 R2 and Windows Server 2016, note the following:

  • Manage the cluster, Hyper-V, and virtual machines from a node running Windows Server 2016 or Windows 10.
  • You can move virtual machines between all of the nodes in the Hyper-V cluster.
  • To use new Hyper-V features, all nodes must run Windows Server 2016 and the cluster functional level must be updated.
  • The virtual machine configuration version for existing virtual machines isn't upgraded. You can upgrade the configuration version only after you upgrade the cluster functional level.
  • Virtual machines that you create are compatible with Windows Server 2012 R2, virtual machine configuration level 5.

After you update the cluster functional level:

  • You can enable new Hyper-V features.
  • To make new virtual machine features available, use the Update-VmConfigurationVersion cmdlet to manually update the virtual machine configuration level. For instructions, see Upgrade virtual machine version.
  • You can't add a node to the Hyper-V Cluster that runs Windows Server 2012 R2.

Hyper-V on Windows 10 doesn't support failover clustering.

Shared virtual hard disks (updated)

You can now resize shared virtual hard disks (.vhdx files) used for guest clustering, without downtime. Shared virtual hard disks can be grown or shrunk while the virtual machine is online. Guest clusters can now also protect shared virtual hard disks by using Hyper-V Replica for disaster recovery.

Enable replication on the collection. Enabling replication on a collection is only exposed through the WMI interface. See the documentation for Msvm_CollectionReplicationService class for more details. You cannot manage replication of a collection through PowerShell cmdlet or UI. The VMs should be on hosts that are part of a Hyper-V cluster to access features that are specific to a collection. This includes Shared VHD - shared VHDs on stand-alone hosts are not supported by Hyper-V Replica.

A collection with a shared VHD but no associated guest cluster cannot create reference points for the collection (regardless of whether the shared VHD is included in the reference point creation or not).

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